The Obligation of Zakah
Upon What is it obligatory?
- Trading Commodities (things)
- That which is produced/extracted from the Earth
Upon Whom is it obligatory?
- A Free Person (not in slavery)
- A Muslim
- Possessor of Nisaab (نصاب)
- Possessing (point no. 3) for one lunar (حول) year
So, a free Muslim who possesses something (from those that come under Zakah) that has reached or exceeded Nisaab and has completed one lunar year while being in possession, should pay Zakah upon it.
Nisaab for different commodities
|Name of the Commodity/Thing||Nisaab and how much Zakah should be paid|
|Cash at One’s Disposal||When it is worth the amount of gold or silver that requires Zakat and when this amount remains above the Nisab value for a full year. Zakat in this case is also one-fourth of a tenth, or 2.5%.|
|Gold||85 grams (2.5% of net worth)|
|Silver||595 grams (2.5% of net worth)|
|Camels||5-9 = 1 sheep|
|10-14= 2 sheep|
|15-19= 3 sheep|
|20-24= 4 sheep|
|25-35= 1yr old She-Camel or 2yrs old male camel (and so on)|
|Cows||30-39= 1yr old male or female calf|
|40-59= 2yrs old female cow|
|60-69= two 1yr old cows (and so on)|
|Sheep||40-119= 1 sheep|
|120-199= 2 sheep|
|200= 3 sheep. Then for every 100 sheep, one sheep is due|
Who are its recipients?
- The Fuqaraa (those who are extremely poor)
- The Masaakeen (the poor and the needy)
- Those who work in collecting and distributing it
- Those whose hearts need firmness upon Islam (especially new Muslims)
- Freeing Slaves
- Paying debts of debtors who are unable to clear off their debts
- In the way of Allah (Jihaad)
- The traveller who is in need
Calculation of Zakah
For example: If a person earns a monthly salary, and he also has properties that fetch rent for him, then his total income would be salary + rent because both are his income. Therefore he will subtract his expenditure and pay zakah on the left over amount if it reaches Nisaab.
A few important points to know
- The Nisaab of cash is that of either gold or silver, which ever is met first (so that more people pay zakah)
- There is no Zakah upon things owned for personal use such as personal house, car, electronics, furniture etc.
- Zakah is due upon money saved by a person even if he intends to spend it for personal purpose but hasn’t spent it yet.
- Salaried people can pay Zakah in advance every year by calculate their average yearly savings and later adjust the difference by the end of the year (if paid more, then the rest is sadaqa)
Disclaimer: The information present here is extracted from the books “Sharh Al Mumti’ Alaa Zaad Al Mustaqni’ of Shaikh Al-Uthaymeen and “Mulakkhas Al Fiqhi” of Shaikh Saailh Al-Fawzaan. Please refer to these books for references and detailed explanations which couldn't be accommodated here due to lack of space. A calculation form is separately available for download